In chemistry and mineralogy, a crystal is a solid in which the element atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a frequently ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions.
The word crystal originates from the Greek word κρύσταλλος (krystallos) meaning clear ice, as it was thoughts to be an especially solid form of water. Citation needed: The word once referred mainly to quartz, or "rock crystal".
Most metals encounter in everyday life is polycrystals. [Citation needed] Crystals are often symmetrically intergrown to form crystal twins.
A corporate bond is a bond issued by a company. The term is usually applied to longer-term debt instruments, normally with a maturity date falling at least a year after their issue date. The term "commercial paper" is sometimes worn for instruments with a shorter maturity.
Sometimes, the term "corporate bonds" is used to include all bonds apart from those issued by governments in their own currency. Strictly speaking, however, it only applies to those issued by corporations.
A negotiable instrument is not a contract per se, as contract formation requires an offer, acceptance, and consideration, none of which are basics of a negotiable instrument. Unlike ordinary contract documents, the right to the performance of a negotiable instrument is connected to the possession of the document itself (with certain exceptions such as loss or theft).
The rights of the payee (or holder in due course) are better than those provide by ordinary contracts as follows: The rights to payment are not subject to set-off, and do not rely on the power of the underlying contract giving rise to the debt (for example if a cheque was drawn for payment for goods delivered but defective, the drawer is still liable on the cheque) No notice needs to be given to any prior party legally responsible on the instrument for transfer of the rights under the instrument by negotiation Transfer free of equities—the holder in due course can hold enhanced title than the party he obtains it from Negotiation enables the transferee to become the party to the contract, and to enforce the contract in his own name. Negotiation can be effect by endorsement and delivery (order instruments), or by delivery alone (bearer instruments).
Social anthropology is the branch of anthropology that studies how at this time living human beings behave in social groups.
Substantive focus and practice Practioners of social anthropology investigate, often through long term, concentrated field studies (including participant observation methods), the social organization of a particular people: customs, economic and political organization, law and conflict resolution, patterns of consumption and exchange, kinship and family structure, gender relations, childrearing and socialization, religion, and so on.
Social anthropology also explore the role of meanings, ambiguities and contradiction of social life, patterns of sociality, violence and conflict, and the underlying logics of social behavior. Social anthropologists are taught in the interpretation of narrative, ritual and symbolic behavior not merely as text, but with communication examined in relation to action, practice, and the historical context in which it is embedded. Social anthropologists address the variety of positions and perspectives to be found within any social group.
Over time, technology has become extremely developed. This is unpleasant for mankind because the more superior, the more serious television gets, the not as good as it is for its viewers. It always feeds people in sequence with which they take in without even important its perils. What they think is an admirable source of information, is actually a dangerous medium through which millions of Americans decrease their intelligence.
According to Neil Postman, it is basically just a damage of content because it focuses more on descriptions, rather than content. In Postman's essay, The Huxleyan Warning, he exhorts readers that Huxley's prophecy is launch to be realized. He claims that society will enslave themselves through their love for their own oppression; the technologies that disable their ability to think. This technology comes during the shape of a television screen. These prophecies, which were first introduce to us by Aldous Huxley, are observable in the movie The Truman Show. Truman is a normal human being, inadvertently being watched by billions of viewers ever since his birth. Viewers are caught to their television sets watching his every move.
A Compact Disc or CD is an optical disc meant to store digital data, initially developed for storing digital audio. The CD, obtainable on the market in late 1982, remains the standard physical medium for commercial audio recordings as of 2007. An audio CD includes one or more stereo tracks stored using 16-bit PCM coding at a sampling rate of 44.1 kHz. Standard CDs include a diameter of 120 mm and can hold about 80 minutes of audio. There are also 80 mm discs, occasionally used for CD singles, which hold around 20 minutes of audio. Compact Disc technology was afterward modified for use as a data storage device, known as a CD-ROM, and it consist of record-once and re-writable media (CD-R and CD-RW respectively). CD-ROMs and CD-Rs stay widely used technologies in the Computer industry as of 2007.
A sulky for horses is a lightweight two-wheeled, single-seat racing cart that is second-hand as a form of rural transport in many parts of the world, and in most form of harness racing in the United States, Australia, Canada and New Zealand, as well as both trotting and pacing races. The word "SULKY" comes from the name of the family business that has built these carts used for over 100 years. Jerald Sulky started business in Chicago and motivated the company to Waterloo, Iowa. The business was stimulated to its present location in Cedar Falls Iowa and continues to ship its products worldwide.
Race sulkies come in two categories, they are
* Traditional balanced sulkies
* Asymmetric or "counterbalance" sulkies
The asymmetric sulky was original in Australia in the 1980s and came to fame in 1987 when a two-year-old gelding named Rowleyalla used one to break the then world record for his category by a colossal seventeen times the biggest previous margin that any southern hemisphere horse had ever broken a world mile record. At 3.4 seconds under the accessible mark, it was also the greatest margin by which any world harness racing record was broken in that year.
In 1990 the asymmetric sulky was introduce into North America, captivating seven of its first nine starts at Freehold, NJ. Today the greater parts of sulky manufacturer in North America are producing asymmetric sulkies.
The term conception usually refers to fertilization, but is sometimes defined as implantation or even the point at which human life begins, and is thus a subject of semantic arguments about the beginning of pregnancy, within the abortion premeditated. Gastrulating is the point in development when the rooted blast cyst develops three germ layers, the endoderm, the exoderm and the mesoderm. It is at this point that the inherited code of the father becomes fully engaged in the development of the embryo. Until this point in development, twinning is feasible. Additionally, interspecies hybrids which have no chance of growth stay alive until gastrulation. However this stance is not completely necessary since human developmental biology literature refers to the concepts and the medical literature refers to the products of commencement as the post-implantation embryo and its surrounding membranes. The term "conception" is not normally used in scientific literature because of its variable definition and suggestion.
Earth's atmosphere is a layer of gases adjoining the planet Earth and retain by the Earth's gravity. It contains roughly (by molar content/volume) 78% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.038% carbon dioxide; trace amount of other gases, and a changeable amount (average around 1%) of water vapor. This mixture of gases is usually known as air. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by attractive ultraviolet solar radiation and reducing temperature limits between day and night.
There is no exact border between the atmosphere and outer space, it slowly becomes thinner and fades into liberty. Three quarters of the atmosphere's mass is within 11 km of the terrestrial surface. In the United States, people who travel above a height of 80.5 km (50 statute miles) are selected astronauts. An altitude of 120 km (400,000 ft) marks the boundary where atmospheric property becomes obvious during re-entry. The Kármán line, at 100 km (328,000 ft), is also often regarded as the boundary between atmosphere and outer space.
Economics is the learning of making choices. High school and college students all over required to take economic courses in order to achieve a diploma. Why is economics so important because it provides a guide for students for real-world situations. Economics is divided into two types microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics is the study of economics at a slim level. For example absorbed on how a detailed business functions is microeconomics.
Studying the world economy is classified as Macroeconomics; its center on a much broader level. All students must understand the concept of insufficiency. Scarcity is a condition that occurs because society has unlimited wants and needs however the amount of property is limited. Unlimited wants and needs are what encourage us to create goods and services. We are never satisfied therefore we always have a want or need. On the other hand our income is limited.
It is a touching love story that stars Richard Gere as Wil, and Wynona Ryder as Charlotte. Wil, a characteristic womanizer, is introduced to Charlotte, a unique young woman, by her grandmother, whom he had known for many years, and the two are right away attracted to each other. Unfortunately, Wil’s fear of understanding and Charlotte’s terminal illness will pose grave burdens on what seems to be a growing romance. Attractively done, the movie’s plot seems to be directly associated with the changing of the seasons. The issue of time is a theme that is chronic and highly symbolized throughout the film.
The movie begins in the fall, the time of harvest, and a time to gather what you spread. Perhaps this time of the year is delegate of people’s potential to harvest what’s within, perfect for the combination of lovers. But, even though the movie is happy to be a love story, there are problems from the beginning. When Wil look at women, he sees them as acquisition.
Gold is a extremely sought-after valuable metal that for many centuries has been used as money, a store of value and in ornaments. The metal occurs as nugget or grains in rocks and in alluvial deposits and is one of the coinage metals. It is a soft, glossy, yellow, dense, malleable, and ductile change metal. Modern manufacturing uses include dentistry and electronics. Gold forms the basis for a financial typical used by the International Monetary Fund and the Bank for International resolution . Its ISO currency code is XAU.
Gold is a tinny element with a trait yellow color, but can also be black or ruby when finely alienated, while colloidal solutions are intensely tinted and often purple. These colors are the effect of gold's plasmon frequency lying in the visible range, which causes red and yellow glow to be reflected, and blue light to be engrossed. Only silver colloids show the same interactions with light, albeit at a shorter occurrence, making silver colloids yellow in color.
Gold is a good conductor of temperature and electricity, and is not precious by air and most reagents. Heat, damp, oxygen, and most corrosive agents have very little chemical effect on gold, making it well-suited for use in coins and jewelry; equally, halogens will chemically alter gold, and aqua regia dissolve it.
Pure gold is too soft for ordinary use and is hard-boiled by alloying with silver, copper, and other metals. Gold and its lots of alloys are most often used in jewelry, coinage and as a typical for monetary exchange in various countries. When promotion it in the form of jewelry, gold is calculated in karats , with pure gold being 24k. However, it is more commonly sold in lower capacity of 22k, 18k, and 14k. A lower "k" indicates a higher percent of copper or silver assorted into the alloy, with copper being the more typically used metal between the two. Fourteen karat gold-copper alloy will be almost identical in color to definite bronze alloys, and both may be used to produce polish and added badges. Eighteen karat gold with a high copper content is establish in some traditional jewelry and will have a distinct, though not dominant copper cast, giving an attractively warm color. A comparable karat weight when alloyed with silvery metals will appear less humid in color, and some low karat white metal alloys may be sold as "white gold", silvery in exterior with a slightly yellow cast but far more resistant to decay than silver or sterling silver. Karat weights of twenty and higher is more general in modern jewelry. Because of its high electrical conductivity and confrontation to decay and other desirable combinations of physical and chemical properties, gold also emerged in the late 20th century as an vital industrial metal, particularly as thin plating on electrical card associates and connectors.
A beautiful Morning
You are session on top of the world, you look something like and all you can see are blue skies and sunshine. Those days do not come around all the time but when they do you take a step back and understand how enormous life is. I myself have a silence a few days similar to that and let me tell you I wished they never ended. And though the 24 hour time duration we refer to as a day maybe over it is a mere drop in the ocean of time we have in our lives and enjoying every minute is the only manner to live. There will always be good days and bad days, but the extraordinary days are those who live in disgrace through the stories of the old and have been.
About a year ago I was living in
Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis and its fruit. The orange is a hybrid of ancient cultivated origin, possibly between pomelo and tangerine. It is a small flowering tree growing to about 10 m tall with evergreen leaves, which are arranged alternately, of ovate shape with crenulated margins and 4–10 cm long. The orange fruit is hesperidia, a type of berry.
Playground slides are found in parks, schools, playgrounds and backyards around the earth. Slides are constructed of either plastic or metal and they have a soft surface that is either straight or wavy/rippled. Slides are integral parts of playgrounds. The user, normally a child, climbs to the top of the slide via a steps or stairs and sits down on the top of slide and "slides" down the slide. Some slides are directly, others wind their way down. Slides come in different shapes, sizes and colors. Some slides are commercial, found in playground at parks and schools. Other slides are part of residential playgrounds.
The Valencia or Murcia orange is one of the sweet oranges used for juice mining. It is a late-season fruit, and therefore a popular variety when the navel oranges are out of season. For this reason, the orange was chosen to be the official mascot of the 1982 FIFA World Cup, which was held in Spain. The mascot was called "Naranjito" ("little orange"), and wore the colors of the Spanish soccer team uniform.
Odissi (or Orissi) is the traditional style of dance that originates in the state of Orissa in Eastern India, where it was performed by the maharis. It is one of the oldest existing forms of dance, with evidence dating back to 2200 BC to be found in the caves of Khandagiri and Udayagiri in Orissa. Today, there are three distinct styles of Odissi, including the Gotipua style of Guru Deba Prasad Das, the Mahari style of Guru Pankaj Charan Das, and the repertoire of Odissi as formulated under the aegis of Jayantika in 1957, which is the style of Guru Kelucharan Mohapatra.
In many countries, the system of the road is codified, setting out the legal requirements and punishments for breaking them. In the United Kingdom, the rules are set out in the Highway Code, including some obligations, but also a lot of other advice on how to drive prudently and securely. For this second set of advice, it states: Although failure to comply with the other rules of the Code will not, in itself, cause a person to be prosecuted, The Highway Code may be used in evidence in any court proceedings under Traffic Acts to establish liability. Many of its ex-colonies still retain this notice.
A digital image is an illustration of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. The digital image contains a fixed number of rows and columns of pixels. Pixels are the smallest individual element in an image, share quantized values that represent the brightness of a given color at any specific point.
Pollutants in water consist of a large spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical chemistry or sensory changes. A lot of the chemical substances are toxic. Pathogens can apparently produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts. Alteration of water’s physical chemistry includes acidity, conductivity, temperature, and eutrophication. Eutrophication is the fertilization of surface water by nutrients that were previously scarce. Even many of the municipal water supplies in developed countries can present health risks.
Clock synchronization is a problem from computer science and engineering which deals with the idea that internal clocks of several computers may be different. Even when initially set accurately, real clocks will differ after some amount of time due to clock drift, caused by clocks counting time at slightly different rates. There are several problems that occur as a consequence of rate differences and several solutions, some being more appropriate than others in certain contexts.
MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system commercialized by Microsoft. It was the commonly used member of the DOS family of operating systems and was the dominant operating system for the PC compatible platform during the 1980s. It has gradually been replaced on consumer desktop computers by a variety of generations of the Windows operating system.
MS-DOS was initially released in 1981 and had eight major versions released before Microsoft stopped development in 2000. It was the key product in Microsoft's growth from a programming languages company to varied software development firm, providing the company with essential revenue and marketing resources.
A superscalar CPU architecture implements a form of parallelism called Instruction-level parallelism within a solitary processor. It thereby allows faster CPU throughput than would otherwise be possible at the same clock rate. A superscalar architecture executes more than one instruction during a single pipeline stage by pre-fetching several instructions and at the same time dispatching them to redundant functional units on the processor.
Seymour Cray's CDC 6600 from 1965 is often mentioned as the first superscalar plan. The Intel i960CA and the AMD 29000-series 29050 microprocessors were the first commercial single-chip superscalar microprocessors. RISC CPUs like these brought the superscalar idea to micro computers because the RISC design results in a simple core, allowing straightforward instruction send off and the inclusion of multiple functional units on a single CPU in the inhibited design rules of the time. This was the reason that RISC designs were faster than CISC designs through the 1980s and into the 1990s.
Swans are large water birds of the family Anatidae, which also includes geese and ducks. Swans are grouped with the intimately related geese in the subfamily Anserinae where they form the tribe Cygnini. Sometimes, they are considered a distinct subfamily, Cygninae.
Swans typically mate for life, though "divorce" does sometimes occur, mainly following nesting failure. The number of eggs in each clutch is between 3–8.
The word is derived from Old English swan, akin to German Schwan, in turn derived from Indo-European root *swen (to sound, to sing), whence Latin derives sonus (sound). Young swans are known as cygnets, from the Latin word for swan, cygnus. An adult male is a cob, from Middle English cobbe; an adult female is a pen .
Canonization is the act by which a Christian Church declares some deceased person to be a saint, inscribing that person in the canon, or list, of recognized saints.In the Catholic Church, the act of canonization is now kept to the Holy See and occurs at the conclusion of a long process requiring extensive proof that the person future for canonization lived, and died, in such a way that he or she is worthy to be recognized as a saint. at first, however, individuals were recognized as saints without any formal process, as happened, for instance, in the case of Saint Peter and the Blessed Virgin Mary. Other Christian Churches still follow the older practice Canonization, whether formal or informal, does not make someone a saint: it is only a declaration that the person is a saint and was a saint even before canonization. It is generally familiar that there are many more saints in heaven than have been canonized on earth.
Water abstraction, or water extraction, is the process of taking water from any source, either temporarily or permanently. Most water is used for irrigation or treatment to produce drinking water.Depending on the environmental legislation in the relevant country, controls may be located on abstraction to limit the amount of water that can be removed. Over abstraction can lead to rivers drying up or the level of groundwater aquifers reducing unacceptably.The science of hydrogeology is used to assess safe abstraction levels.
Mobile phone radiation and health concerns have been raised, especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world. This is because mobile phones use electromagnetic waves in the microwave range. These concerns have induced a large body of research. Concerns about effects on health have also been raised regarding other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks. The World Health Organization has concluded that serious health effects are very unlikely to be caused by cellular phones or their base stations, and expects to make recommendations about mobile phones in 2007–08.
A bag is the common term for any container that a character uses to hold other items. Bags can be placed in the storage slots at the right-most end of the interface bar. Bags inside bags must be empty. You can purchase extra bag slots for your bank account at gradually increasing rates, starting at 10 for the first slot.
Normal bags can hold any sort of item, unlike special bags that can only hold specific types of items. Special bags give the player more slots to store items, with the exchange of only being able to put certain types of items in them. Specials bags are generally cheaper than normal bags of the same size.
A variant often popular with children or an odd number of players. Play is as above accepted that all players try to sink all carrom men, regardless of color. The nine carrom men of one color are worth one point each and the nine carrom men of the other color are worth two points each. The red queen is worth five points and may only be captured by pocketing another carrom man on the same or subseqent strike. A player reaching 17 or more points is the winner; otherwise the winner is the player with the most points after all carrom men have been pocketed.
A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball housed in a socket containing sensors to identify the rotation of the ball about two axes—like an upside-down mouse with an exposed protruding ball. The user rolls the ball with the thumb, fingers, or the palm of the hand to move a cursor. Large follower balls are common on CAD workstations for easy precision. Before the advent of the touchpad, small trackballs were common on portable computers, where there may be no desk space on which to run a mouse. Some small thumb balls clip onto the side of the keyboard and have integral buttons with the same function as mouse buttons.
When mice and trackballs still had chopper wheels, trackballs had the advantage of being in contact with the user's hand, which is generally cleaner than the desk or mouse pad and doesn't drag lint into the chopper wheels. The late 1990s advent of scroll wheels, and the replacement of mouse balls by direct optical tracking, put trackballs at a disadvantage and forced them to retreat into niches where their distinctive merits remained important. Most trackballs now have direct optical tracking which follows dots on the ball. Some mice, in place of a scroll wheel, acquired a small trackball between the ears, useful in maps, and other circumstances calling for scrolling in two dimensions.
A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to decrease the average time to access memory. The cache is a smaller, faster memory which stores copies of the data from the most often used main memory locations. As long as most memory accesses are to cached memory locations, the average latency of memory accesses will be closer to the cache latency than to the latency of main memory.
When the processor needs to read or write a location in main memory, it first checks whether that memory location is in the cache. This is accomplished by comparing the address of the memory location to all tags in the cache that may contain that address. If the processor finds that the memory location is in the cache, we say that a cache hit has occurred; otherwise we talk of a cache miss. In the case of a cache hit, the processor immediately reads or writes the information in the cache line. The proportion of accesses that result in a cache hit is known as the hit rate, and is a measure of the effectiveness of the cache.
In the case of a cache miss, most caches assign a new entry, which comprises the tag just missed and a copy of the data from memory. The reference can then be applied to the new entry just as in the case of a hit. Misses are relatively slow because they require the data to be transferred from main memory. This transfer incurs a delay since main memory is much slower than cache memory, and also incurs the overhead for recording the new data in the cache before it is delivered to the processor.
Water pollution is a large set of unfavorable belongings upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. Although natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause main changes in water quality and the environmental status of water, these are not deemed to be pollution. Water pollution has many causes and characteristics. Increases in nutrient loading may lead to eutrophication. Organic wastes such as sewage inflict high oxygen demands on the getting water leading to oxygen depletion with potentially severe impacts on the whole eco-system. Industries discharge a variety of pollutants in their wastewater including grave metals, organic toxins, oils, nutrients, and solids. Discharges can also have thermal effects, especially those from power stations, and these too reduce the available oxygen. Silt-bearing runoff from many activities together with construction sites, deforestation and agriculture can reduce the penetration of sunlight through the water column, restricting photosynthesis and causing blanketing of the lake or river bed, in turn damaging ecological systems.
Pollutants in water consist of a wide spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical chemistry or sensory changes. A lot of the chemical substances are toxic. Pathogens can apparently produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts. Alteration of water’s physical chemistry includes acidity, conductivity, temperature, and eutrophication. Eutrophication is the fertilization of surface water by nutrients that were previously scarce. Even many of the municipal water supplies in developed countries can present health risks.
Schooling occurs when group or a society or an individual sets up a curriculum to educate people, usually the young. Schooling can become systematic. Sometimes education systems can be used to promote doctrine or ethics as well as knowledge, and this can lead to abuse of the system.
Life-long or adult education have become extensive in many countries. However, education is still seen by many as something aimed at children, and adult education is often branded as adult learning or ultimate learning.
Adult education takes on several forms, from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning. Lending libraries provide cheap informal access to books and other self-instructional materials. Many adults have also taken advantage of the rise in computer ownership and internet access to further their casual education.
Multimedia is media that uses multiple forms of information content and information processing to inform or amuse the audience. Multimedia referred to the use of electronic media to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is similar to traditional mixed media in fine art, but with a broader scope. The term rich media is identical for interactive multimedia. Multimedia means that computer info can be represented through audio, graphics, image, video and animation in addition to traditional media (text and graphics). Hypermedia can be considered one particular multimedia application.
Multimedia may be generally divided into linear and non-linear categories. Linear dynamic content progresses without any navigation control for the observer such as a cinema presentation. Non-linear content offers user interactivity to control progress as used with a computer game or used in self-paced computer based training. Non-linear content is also known as hypermedia content.
Multimedia presentations can be exist or recorded. A recorded presentation may allocate interactivity via a navigation system. A live multimedia presentation may allow interactivity via interaction with the presenter or performer.
A personal computer or PC is usually a microcomputer intended to be used by one person at a time, and suitable for general principle tasks such as word processing, programming, sending messages or digital documents to other computers on the network, multimedia editing or game play, usually used to run software not written by the user. Unlike minicomputers, a personal computer is often owned by the person using it, representing a low cost of purchase and simplicity of operation. The user of a modern personal computer may have trivial knowledge of the operating environment and application programs, but is not unavoidably interested in programming or even able to write programs for the computer.
In modern usage PC nearly always refers to an IBM compatible and the term may even be used for machines that are in no way personal computers but still use the basic architecture of the IBM pc. The first generation of microcomputers were called just that, and only sold in small numbers to those able to operate them: engineers and accomplished. The second generation micros were known as home computers, and are discussed in that section.
Radio is the wireless transmission of signals, by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of light.Radio waves.Radio waves are a form of electromagnetic radiation, formed whenever a charged object accelerates by a frequency that lies in the radio frequency (RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is the variety from a few tens of hertz to a few hundred gigahertz.Electromagnetic radio spectrum Other types of electromagnetic radiation, with frequencies above the RF range are infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays. Since the energy of an individual photon of radio frequency is too low to remove an electron from an atom, radio waves are classified as non-ionizing radiation.Radio transmission diagram and electromagnetic waves.Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space equally well, and does not need a medium of transport induces an alternating current and voltage in the conductor. This can be transformed into audio or other signals that carry information. Although the word 'radio' is used to explain this phenomenon, the transmissions which we know as television, radio, radar, and cell phone are all classed as radio frequency emissions.
The chair is of great antiquity, although for many centuries and indeed for thousands of years it was an article of state and self-respect rather than an article of normal use. “The chair” is still widely used as the emblem of authority in the House of Commons and in public meetings. It was not, in fact, until the 16th century that it became common anywhere. The chest, the bench and the stool were until then the ordinary seats of everyday life, and the number of chairs which have survived from an earlier date is exceedingly limited; most of such examples are of clerical or seigniorial origin. Our knowledge of the chairs of remote antiquity is derived almost entirely from monuments, sculpture and paintings. A few actual examples exist in the British Museum, in the Egyptian museum at Cairo, and elsewhere.
In ancient Egypt chairs appear to have been of great richness and splendor. Fashioned of ebony and- ivory, or of stamped and gilded wood, they were covered with costly materials and supported upon representations of the legs of beasts or the figures of captives. An arm-chair in fine protection found in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings is astonishingly similar, even in small details, to that "Empire" style which followed Napoleon’s campaign in Egypt. The initial monuments of Nineveh represent a chair without a back but with tastefully carved legs ending in lions’ claws or bulls’ hoofs. Others are supported by figures in the nature of caryatides or by animals.
Greek and Roman chairs
The initial known form of Greek chair, going back to five or six centuries before Christ, had a back but stood straight up, front and back. On the fresco of the Parthenon Zeus occupies a square seat with a bar-back and thick turned legs; it is bejeweled with winged sphinxes and the feet of beasts. The characteristic Roman chairs were of marble, also adorned with sphinxes. The curule chair was initially very similar in form to the modern folding chair, but finally received a good deal of ornament. The most renowned of the very few chairs which have come down from a remote antiquity is the reputed chair of St. Peter in St Peter's Basilica at Rome. The wooden portions are much moldy, but it would appear to be Byzantine work of the 6th century, and to be really an ancient sedia gestatoria.
The Asian Paradise Flycatcher, also known as the Common Paradise Flycatcher, is a medium-sized passerine bird. It was in the past classified with the Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae, but the paradise flycatchers, monarch flycatchers and Australasian fantails are now usually grouped with the drongos in the family Dicruridae, which has the majority of its members in Australasia and tropical southern Asia.
The Asian glory Flycatcher breeds from Turkestan to Manchuria. It is wandering, wintering in tropical Asia. There are resident populations further south, for example in southern India and Sri Lanka, so both visiting migrants and the in the vicinity reproduction subspecies take place in these areas in winter.
This species is typically originated in thick forests and other well-wooded habitats. Three or four eggs are laid in a cup shell in a tree.
The adult male Asian Paradise Flycatcher is about 20 cm long, but the long tail streamers double this. It has a black crested head, stale joke upperparts and pale grey underparts.
By their second year, the males of the wandering Indian race T. p. paradisi begin to obtain white feathers. By the third year, the male plumage is totally white, other than the black head. Males of the sedentary Sri Lankan race T. p. ceylonensis are forever stale joke.
The female of all races resembles the stale joke male, but has a grey throat, minor peak and lacks the tail streamers.
Jet Airways is an airline based in India, helping domestic and international routes. The airline operates over 250 flights to 44 destinations across the country, with the greater part of flights operated from Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai. It at present controls about 40% of India's aviation bazaar.
Jet Airways was recognized on 5 May 1993 with a fleet of 4 Boeing 737-300 aircraft, with 24 daily flights helping 12 destinations.
Its 44 destinations include most of the big cities in India. Its worldwide destinations include Kathmandu, Colombo, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and London's Heathrow Airport. Jet Airways was the first personal airline of India to fly to international destinations. It was later joined by Air Sahara. The daily Delhi-London service started in October of that year.
Jet Airways and Air Sahara are the only personal airlines which survived the Indian business downturn of the 1990s. On January 19, 2006 Jet Airways announced that it is buying Air Sahara for $500 million. This is the major invasion in India's aviation history and the resulting airline will be the country's largest.
In 2006 Jet Airways will be expanding it's route network from Delhi via the north Indian city of Amritsar, as it is to begin Amritsar-London and/or Amritsar-Birmingham.
A professional video camera (often called a "television camera"
even though the use has extend) is a high-end tool for video
recording electronic moving images (as opposed to a film camera,
that records the images on film). Formerly developed for use in
television studios, they are now normally used for corporate and
educational videos, music videos, direct-to-video movies, etc.
Not as much of advanced video cameras used by customers are
often referred to as camcorders.
There are two kind of professional video cameras: High end
portable, video recording cameras (which are, confusingly,
called camcorders too) used for ENG image gaining, and studio
cameras which lack the recording capability of a camcorder, and
are often fixed on studio pedestals.
Professional video cameras confine and transfer two dimensional
images serially, at specified capture rates, usually in the
visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Most studio cameras situate on the floor, usually with pneumatic
or hydraulic mechanisms to regulate the height, and are usually
Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far and graphein = write) is the long-distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, initially over wire. Radiotelegraphy or wireless telegraphy transmits messages using radio. This definition includes recent forms of data transmission such as fax, email, and computer networks in general. (A telegraph is a machine for transmitting and receiving messages over long distances, i.e. for telegraphy. The word telegraph alone generally refers to an electrical telegraph.) Wireless telegraphy is also well-known as CW, for continuous wave (a carrier modulated by on-off keying, as opposed to the earlier radio technique using a spark gap).
Telegraphy messages sent by telegraph operators using Morse code were known as telegrams or cablegrams, frequently shortened to a cable or a wire message. Later, telegrams sent by the Telex network, a switched network of teleprinters similar to the telephone network, were identified as telex messages. Before long distance telephone services were willingly available or affordable, telegram services were very popular. Telegrams were frequently used to confirm business dealings and, unlike e-mail, telegrams were usually used to create binding legal documents for business dealings.
Before fax machines came into general use, wire picture or wire photo was a newspaper picture that was sent from a remote location by a facsimile telegraph. This is why many fax machines have a photo option even today.
Optical telegraphs and smoke signals
The first telegraphs were optical telegraphs, with the use of smoke signals and beacons. These have existed since ancient times. A semaphore network invented by Claude Chappe operated in France from 1792 through 1846. It helped Napoleon enough that it was widely imitated in Europe and the U.S. The last commercial semaphore link left operation in 1880.
Semaphores were able to communicate information more precisely than smoke signals and beacons and consumed no fuel. Messages could be sent at much greater speed than post riders and could serve entire regions. However, like beacons and smoke signals, they were dependent on good weather to work. They required operators and towers every 30 km (20 mi), and only send about two words per minute. This was useful to governments, but too expensive for most commercial uses other than commodity price information. Electric telegraphs were to reduce the cost of sending a message thirty-fold compared to semaphore.
A camera is a device used to take pictures (usually photographs), also singly or in sequence, with or without sound, such as with video cameras. The name is derived from camera obscura, Latin for "dark chamber", an early mechanism for projecting images in which an entire room functioned much as the internal workings of a modern photographic camera, except there was no way at this time to record the image short of physically tracing it. Cameras may work with the visual spectrum or other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Fog is a cloud in contact with the ground. Fog differs from other clouds only in that fog touches the surface of the Earth. The similar cloud that is not fog on lower ground may be fog where it contacts higher ground such as hilltops or mountain ridges. Fog is different from mist only in its density. Fog is defined as cloud which reduces visibility to less than 1 km, whereas mist is that which reduces visibility to less than 2 km.
The foggiest place in the world is the Grand Banks off the island of Newfoundland, Canada. Fog is common here as the Grand Banks is the meeting place of the cold Labrador Current from the north and the much warmer Gulf Stream from the south. The foggiest land areas in the world are Point Reyes, California and Argentia, Newfoundland, both with over 200 foggy days a year.
Photography is the method of making pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a sensor or film. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects are recorded onto a sensitive medium or storage chip through a timed exposure. The process is done through mechanical, chemical or digital devices well-known as cameras.
The word comes from the Greek words phos ("light"), and graphis ("stylus", "paintbrush") or graphê, together meaning "drawing with light" or "representation by means of lines" or "drawing." usually the product of photography has been called a photograph. The term photo is an abbreviation; many people also call them pictures. In digital photography, the term image has begun to replace photograph.
Japan is a foremost nation in the fields of scientific research, technology, machinery and medical research with the world's third biggest budget for research and development at US$130 billion, and over 677,000 researchers.
Some of Japan's more important technological contributions are found in the fields of electronics, machinery, industrial robotics, optics, chemicals, semiconductors and metals. Japan leads the world in robotics, possessing more than half (402,200 of 742,500) of the world's industrial robots used for manufacturing.It also produced QRIO, ASIMO, and Aibo. Japan is also home to six of the world's 15 biggest automobile manufacturers and seven of the world 20 largest semiconductor sales leaders.
Japan has also made headway into aerospace research and space exploration. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) conducts space and planetary research, aviation research, and growth of rockets and satellites. It also built the Japanese Experiment Module, which is slated to be launched and added to the International Space Station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2007 and 2008.
The most common constituent of sand, in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings, is silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2), typically in the form of quartz, which, because of its chemical inertness and considerable hardness, is resistant to weathering. The composition of sand varies according to local rock sources and conditions. The bright white sands originate in tropical and subtropical coastal settings are ground-up limestone. Arkose is a sand or sandstone with significant feldspar content which is derived from the weathering and erosion of a (usually nearby) granite. Some locations have sands that contain magnetite, chlorite, glauconite or gypsum. Sands rich in magnetite are dark to black in color, as are sands derivative from volcanic basalts. The chlorite-glauconite bearing sands are usually green in color, as are sands derived from basalts (lavas) with a high olivine content. The gypsum sand dunes of the White Sands National Monument in New Mexico are famous for their bright, white color. Sand deposits in some areas have garnets and other resistant minerals, with some small gemstones.
Acid rain occurs when sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are emitted into the atmosphere, undergo chemical transformations and are absorbed by water droplets in clouds. The droplets then fall to earth as rain, snow, mist, dry dust, hail, or sleet. This can add to the acidity of the soil, and affect the element balance of lakes and streams.The term "acid rain" is sometimes used more usually to include all forms of acid deposition - both wet deposition, where acidic gases and particles are removed by rain or other precipitation, and dry deposition removal of gases and particles to the Earth's surface in the absence of precipitation. Acid rain is defined as any type of precipitation with a pH that is abnormally low. Dissolved carbon dioxide dissociates to form weak carbonic acid giving a pH of approximately 5.6 at typical atmospheric concentrations of CO2. Therefore a pH of less than 5.6 has every so often been used as a definition of acid rain. However, natural sources of acidity mean that in remote areas, rain has a pH which is between 4.5 and 5.6 with an average value of 5.0 and so rain with a pH of less than 5 is a more appropriate definition. The US EPA says, "Acid rain is a serious environmental problem that affects large parts of the US and Canada" Acid rain accelerates weathering in carbonate rocks and accelerates building weathering. It also contributes to acidification of rivers, streams, and forest damage at high elevations. When the acid builds up in rivers and streams it can kill fish.
Historiography has a number of associated meanings. It can refer to the history of historical learning, its methodology and practices (the history of history). It can also refer to a particular body of historical writing (for example, "medieval historiography during the 1960s" means "medieval history written during the 1960s"). Historiography can also be in use to mean historical theory or the study of past writing and memory. As a meta-level analysis of descriptions of the past, this third conception can relate to the first two in that the analysis usually focuses on the narratives, interpretations, worldview, use of evidence, or method of presentation of other historians.
Gardening is the art of growing plants with the aim of crafting a purposeful landscape. Residential gardening most often takes place in or about a residence, in a space referred to as the garden. Although a garden naturally is located on the land near a residence, it may also be located in a roof, in an entrance, on a balcony, in a windowbox, or on a yard.
Gardening also takes place in non-residential green areas, such as parks, public or semi-public gardens (botanical gardens or zoological gardens), pleasure and theme parks, along transportation corridors, and around tourist attractions and hotels. In these situations, a staff of gardeners or groundskeepers maintains the gardens.
Indoor gardening is concerned with the increasing of houseplants within a residence or building, in a conservatory, or in a greenhouse. Indoor gardens are sometimes included as part of air conditioning or heating systems.
Water gardening is concerned with growing plants adapted to pools and ponds. Bog gardens are also considered a type of water garden. These all require extraordinary conditions and considerations. A simple water garden may consist simply of a tub containing the water and plant(s).
Container gardening is concerned with growing plants in any type of container either indoors or outdoors. Common containers are pots, hanging baskets, and planters. Container gardening is usually used in atriums and on balconies, patios, and roof tops.
Every student entering business school to get their MBA degree will require various skills and have basic expertise in particular areas. The level of the mathematical skills will vary depending upon the choice of your program. Many MBA programs need algebra, statistics, and most likely calculus. You may want to revive your skills if they are in query before entering an MBA program, because joining an MBA program without basic skills will be a bit tougher to get through. Most business schools needs the use of private computers throughout your MBA program, in some cases many school will require that you possess your own laptop. Though the degree to which you use a computer will differ, you should be contented with the complete knowledge of word processing, spreadsheets and databases. Every school will provide you their minimum basic necessities for computer skills.
Business schools today try to impersonate the business setting in their academic programs by using student teams. As businesses more and more twisted to teams to work on projects and to solve troubles, MBA programs have converted a huge portion of course work from individual work to teamwork. Many masters of business administration programs now contain teambuilding training as team building workshops, or as a theme in managerial performance courses. Teams are formed mainly for the reason of one project in one course or by remaining together, working on multiple courses for months. In this competitive situation of Business administration programs, the collaboration of students in team building movements is often complicated. Students that take part in team activities find that working with someone else takes up a lot of educational time.
The business fundamentals are taught in every MBA program. Economics, finance, accounting, organizational behavior, marketing, and statistics are in the basic range for master of business administration programs. In business school these subjects are considered a foundation group of courses required for each and every candidate.
These core courses make up the first year of study in a two-year full-time program. In some programs, students who have a prior background in business can by pass some or all of the core courses on the basis of either a special examination or an evaluation of the undergraduate transcript. In some programs, students who have a previous backdrop in business can go around some or all of the foundation courses on the basis of either a special examination or an assessment of the undergraduate record.
Journalism is a concrete, professionally oriented major that involves gathering, interpreting, distilling, and other reporting information to the general audiences through a variety of media means. Journalism majors learn about every possible kind of Journalism (including magazine, newspaper, online journalism, photojournalism, broadcast journalism, and public relations).
That's not all, though. In addition to dedicated training in writing, editing, and reporting, Journalism wants a working knowledge of history, culture, and current events. You'll more than likely be required to take up a broad range of courses that runs the range from statistics to the hard sciences to economics to history. There would also be a lot of haughty talk about professional ethics and civic responsibility too - and you'll be tested on it. To top it all off, you'll perhaps work on the university newspaper or radio station, or possibly complete an internship with a magazine or a mass media conglomerate.